Abbotsbury Castle is an Iron Age hill fort in south west Dorset, England, situated on Wears Hill above the village of Abbotsbury, seven miles west of Dorchester and the famous hill fort at Maiden Castle. It is an inspiring project connecting communities and volunteers with heritage and nature. 2 Dorset’s hillforts Dorset’s hillforts, a visitor’s guide Introduction 4 Hillfort archaeology 6 Hillfort nature 8 Hillfort management 10 Coney’s Castle 12 Lambert’s Castle 14 Pilsdon Pen 16 Lewesdon Hill 18 Eggardon Hill 20 Cerne Giant 22 Hod Hill 24 Hambledon Hill 26 Badbury Rings 28 Top Badbury Rings Above Yellowhammer Right Common spotted orchid Left Hod Hill. The emplacements were of a standard Imperial design, open concrete emplacements over a large magazine complex, with shell and cartridge hoists.  Archaeologist Niall Sharples, who was involved in excavating the hill fort in the 1980s, has identified the hilltop views of the surrounding landscape as a likely factor for the enclosure's position. The hilltop is encircled by an Iron Age earthwork and there are extensive Neolithic features, making it a major archaeological site. Pilsdon Pen Pilsdon Pen is the highest hill fort in Dorset, England. Ref: 1/4-048821-G. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand.  On the industrial site, more than 62 kg (137 lb) of iron slag was discovered in an area of 30 m2 (320 sq ft), and it is believed the site produced around 200 kg (440 lb) of iron. Although there is a layer of charcoal, it is associated with the iron works, and the main evidence for slighting of defences comes from the collapse of an entranceway to the fort.  The only other significant activity on the hill top after the Romans was a short period of cultivation in the 17th century, as demonstrated by traces of ridge and furrow caused by ploughing.. An unpublished RCHME survey suggests the presence of at least nine roundhouses. The modern name for the hill fort is first recorded in 1607 as Mayden Castell; it is not unique to the site and occurs in several other places in Britain and is widely taken to mean a "fortification that looks impregnable" or one that has never been taken in battle. It was a 546-metre (1,791 ft) long mound of earth with a ditch on either side; the parallel ditches were 19.5 m (64 ft) apart. An archaeologist has been accused of ´inventing´ an AD 43 battle after digging up skeletons of an ancient Britonic tribe. The univallate fort of Bulbury (Lytchett Minster (30)), however, produced a find of La Tène objects probably deposited during the 1st century A.D.; the original construction of the work is undated, but it is the only hill-fort in S.E. Continue south west and you will come to Ball Hill. It is roughly rectangular and it is likely that it was designed to command views over the River Frome and the Frome valley to the north. Although bronze was not produced at Maiden Castle, there is evidence of it being reworked. Before the hill fort was built, a Neolithic causewayed enclosure was constructed on the site.  The bank barrow survived into the Iron Age as a low mound, and throughout this period construction over it was avoided..  While developed hill forts were of a higher status than their smaller predecessors, they were not all equal. In the late 4th century AD, a temple and ancillary buildings were constructed.  Not much is known about the material culture and economy of the Early Iron Age, and the paucity of finds from this period at Maiden Castle makes it difficult to draw conclusions about activity on the site. Location. Chilcombe Hill hillfort is a univallate Iron Age enclosure of approx. OS map reference: SY 5302 9195. Hambledon Hill is a National Nature Reserve and one of Dorset's most impressive Iron Age hillfort with multiple ramparts. From Coombe Valley Road drive into the small ancient quarry, turn right and drive through the gate but please close it behind you. Posted on July 11, 2020 by lizbetfry.  Techniques such as radiocarbon dating were available to Sharples that were unavailable to Wheeler, allowing the site to be dated. The interior of the enclosure has been disturbed by later habitation and farming. A. Hoards of carefully selected sling stones have been found at both sites. Eggardon Hill is an Iron Age Hill Fort between Dorchester and Bridport. of the internal character of the various hill-fort types represented in Wessex. However, there is little archaeological evidence to support this version of events, or even that the hill fort was attacked by the Romans. At the eastern end of the ridge and rising 132 m (433 ft) above sea level, the site of the first hill fort was not the highest point along the ridge. troops of the 2nd Augusta Legion west into Dorset. There are 1,224 hill forts in England.  The hill projects about 40 m (131 ft) above the surrounding countryside, which is about 90 m (295 ft) above sea level. Instead the ditches may have been symbolic, separating the interior of the enclosure and its activities from the outside. Banbury Hill is a univallate Early Iron Age hillfort enclosing approx.  According to archaeologist Niall Sharples it is, by some definitions, the largest in western Europe. It’s not flat, but it is exceedingly pretty – which is good as there will be plenty of cake to keep you going. This was a characteristic of Vespasian's campaign in the region; there was military occupation at Cadbury Castle in Somerset, Hembury in Devon, and Hodd Hill in Dorset. We offer a Coronavirus Refund Guarantee so you can enter with complete peace of mind.  In 1921, composer John Ireland wrote Mai-Dun, a symphonic rhapsody, about the hill fort in Dorset. Dec 27, 2018 - Maiden Castle Iron Age hill Fort Dorset, England - Ira Block Photography More information Ira Block Photography | Maiden Castle Iron Age hill Fort Dorset, England THIS IS THE MOST AWSOME PHOTO OF an English hill fort I have found. Built about 2500 years ago it is now owned by the National Trust. If you haven't solved the crossword clue Hill fort in Dorset yet try to search our Crossword Dictionary by entering the letters you already know!  From parallels at these sites, Sharples deduces that it was probably densely occupied, with separate areas for habitation and storage. Wheeler used the "war cemetery", as he described it, as evidence of a Roman attack on Maiden Castle.  The date was deduced from a hoard of coins discovered beneath a mosaic floor in the temple. At the same time, the eastern entrance was again made more complex through the addition of further earthworks, lengthening the approach to the site. It seems likely there was a major trade route to/from there that extended north to Dudsbury Camp, Badbury Rings, Spetisbury Rings, Hod Hill and Hambledon Hill. Carry on browsing if you're happy with this, or find out how to manage cookies. Monumental defences such as the ditch at Maiden Castle indicate that the land was disputed and communities fought each other for control. The site later saw a skirmish - the Battle of Hambledon Hill - during the English Civil War. The views from the summit stretch into Somerset, Wiltshire and Devon.  However, in July 2015 archaeologists from Bournemouth University discovered the remains of the Iron Age settlement of Duropolis and believe that the abandonment of the fort may be connected with the new site. A new guide, produced by the National Trust and available to download below, introduces you to the Iron Age hillforts of Dorset. It was occupied until at least the Roman period, by which time it was in the territory of the Durotriges, a Celtic tribe. 5–7. When it was first built, the gleaming white chalk ramparts would have towered over the surrounding landscape.  Between 1934 and 1937, Mortimer Wheeler and Tessa Verney Wheeler excavated both the interior and the defences, work that was funded almost entirely by donations from the public. The hill fort's expansion was not unique; it was one of a series of "developed hill forts" in southern England. , The four-post structures common in hill forts throughout England are also found in Maiden Castle.  In about 450 BC, Maiden Castle was expanded from 6.4 to 19 ha (16 to 47 acres). , In the Early Iron Age, Maiden Castle was generally unexceptional; it was one of over 100 hill forts of similar size built around the same time in the area that is now Berkshire, Dorset, Hampshire, and Wiltshire. In the Middle Iron Age, Maiden Castle was expanded and in the process it became the largest hill fort in Britain and one of the largest in Europe. Hill forts developed in the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age, roughly the start of the first millennium BC. Built more than 2,000 years ago, Hambledon Hill, near Blandford Forum in Dorset, rises to 190m (620ft). “P.ZZ..” will find “PUZZLE”.) When it was first built, the gleaming white chalk ramparts would have towered over the surrounding landscape. Power passed into the hands of a new group of people. The bank had a wall faced with limestone, which was brought from more than 3 km (2 mi) away.  This is supported by the possibility that the multiple rings of ditches often employed at developed hill forts (the technical term for which is "multivallate") were likely to be not just defensive; so many ditches and ramparts, such as those at Maiden Castle, were excessive for defence alone so were likely used as statements of power and authority. It has been argued that they could have been defensive sites constructed in response to invasion from continental Europe, built by invaders, or a military reaction to social tensions caused by an increasing population and resulting pressure on agriculture. The inturned entrance in the Western rampart is probably original. , Within a period of about 50 years, a bank barrow was built over the enclosure. Like the other hill forts in Dorset, Pilsdon was abandoned after the Roman conquest, after which it's thought that it was used for rough grazing, much as it is today.  A more recent explanation has been advanced by Richard Coates suggesting that the name is only of medieval origin, and was applied simultaneously to the considerable number of identically named locations around the country.  According to the ancient geographer Ptolemy, writing in the 2nd century AD, Dunium was the main settlement of the Durotriges. Wheeler's use of the media to disseminate information about the site resulted in Maiden Castle becoming well known. The site is in a strategic position, 380 feet (116 m) above sea level; Weymouth Bay is about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) to the south.  Almost immediately after the single ditch enclosure was expanded to 19 ha (47 acres), work began on making the defences more elaborate. Pilsdon Pen is the highest hill fort in Dorset, England. Cunliffe states that the Maiden Castle's monumental defences probably indicate that it was of higher status than other developed hill forts. CREECH HILL NORTH DORSET SLOPES OVERVIEW GALLERY DORSET MODEL FLYING CLUBS LINKS EVENTS CHALBURY HILLFORT SLOPE SITE . The hill is an outcrop of the Dorset Ridgeway. Dorset that does not occupy an obviously commanding position. Bulbarrow Hill: 274 … The hill is topped by an Iron Age multivallate Durotrigian hill fort which was excavated in the , Archaeologist Barry Cunliffe believes that population increase still played a role and has stated that, "[the forts] provided defensive possibilities for the community at those times when the stress [of an increasing population] burst out into open warfare. , Constructed on a territorial boundary in about 600 BC, the first hill fort at Maiden Castle was a 6.4-hectare (16-acre) area surrounded by a single ditch.  The developed hill forts of Berkshire, Dorset, Hampshire, and Wiltshire were equally spaced apart, with roughly equal access to resources such as water. Maiden Castle is an Iron Age hill fort 1.6 miles (2.6 km) south west of Dorchester, in the English county of Dorset. Thomas Hardy, who built his house within sight of it, described the castle in a short story, "Ancient Earthworks and What Two Enthusiastic Scientists Found Therein" (1885) about a local antiquarian who spent much time investigating the site. Hod Hill (or Hodd Hill) is a large hill fort in the Blackmore Vale, 3 miles (5 km) north-west of Blandford Forum, Dorset, England.The fort sits on a 143 m (469 ft) chalk hill of the same name that lies between the adjacent Dorset Downs and Cranborne Chase.The hill fort at Hambledon Hill is just to the north. Fort Dorset Battery This was the first emplacement to be built at Point Dorset. Join Dorset Hillfort Ultra . Pages in category "Hill forts in Dorset" The following 20 pages are in this category, out of 20 total. One of a chain of forts extended north from the Iron Age port at Hengistbury Head, it would have prospered from trade with the Mediterranean. An unpublished RCHME survey suggests the presence of at least nine roundhouses. Grid reference: SY544866; Hambledon Hill is a prehistoric hill fort in Dorset, England, situated in the Blackmore … This period of abandonment lasted until the Iron Age, when the hill fort was built. We hope it inspires you to visit, explore and enjoy them. Hod Hill is one of a chain of hill forts that extended from the port at Hengistbury.  Hill forts were fortified hill-top settlements constructed across Britain during the Iron Age. Its huge multiple ramparts, mostly built in the 1st century BC, once protected hundreds of residents. Many 1st-century Roman artefacts have been discovered near the east entrance and in the centre of the hill fort. Often standing in prominent isolation in the landscape, you can get a sense of their positional power whilst enjoying panoramic views across the countryside. The project has been part funded by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development.  The emergence of one dominant hill fort in an area indicates that the inhabitants of a particular hill fort became more important than their contemporaries, possibly through warfare. As some hill forts were expanded, many of the smaller hill forts that had proliferated in the Early Iron Age fell out of use, as was the case in Dorset. Dorset’s hillforts give visitors extraordinary opportunities to experience nature throughout the seasons. It has been argued that they could have been defensive sites constructed in response to invasion from continental Europe, built by invaders, or a military reaction to social tensions caused by an increasing population and resulting pressure on agriculture. An oval-shaped hill fort is the largest hill fort in Britain and also one of the most complex Iron Age hillforts in Europe. Maiden Castle in Dorset is one of the largest and most complex Iron Age hillforts in Europe - the size of 50 football pitches. Chilcombe Hill hillfort is a univallate Iron Age enclosure of approx. Take the view from the top, tune into nature all around you, and look for the footprints of the Iron Age round houses at your feet while you walk. In the 16th and 17th centuries, a barn was built over the "war cemetery". Around 450 BC it was greatly expanded and the enclosed area nearly tripled in size to 19 ha (47 acres), making it the largest hill fort in Britain and, by some definitions, the largest in Europe. View Details. Eggardon Hill. The main six inch gun emplacements at Fort Dorset, 1937. Bindon Hill Fort: Iron Age Hill Fort - See 6 traveller reviews, candid photos, and great deals for West Lulworth, UK, at Tripadvisor. One area of the cemetery featured burials of 14 people who had died in violent circumstances, including one body with a Roman catapult bolt in its back. Maiden Castle: Hill fort - See 369 traveler reviews, 161 candid photos, and great deals for Dorchester, UK, at Tripadvisor. What’s more, this massive area with the size of 50 football pitches was first occupied around 3000 years BC. The earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the site consists of a Neolithic causewayed enclosure and bank barrow.  These gaps, and the bank being only 17 centimetres (6.7 in) high, indicate the site would not have been defensive. The univallate fort of Bulbury (Lytchett Minster (30)), however, produced a find of La Tène objects probably deposited during the 1st century A.D.; the original construction of the work is undated, but it is the only hill-fort in S.E. It was hoped that the combined results of the pro ject would considerably extend academic understanding of the socio-economic role of hillforts in southern England during the 1st millennium BC, thereby allowing a greater level of interpretation to be offered to visi tors at those sites with public access. This, and the abandonment of the smaller hill forts in the area when the developed hill forts were built, indicates that these developed hill forts were important. Poundbury Hill hill fort (grid reference SY682911) is the site of a Middle Bronze Age enclosure. Hambledon Hill, Dorset. Hambledon Hill. Eggardon Hill Fort – Dorset. Since the 1960s, the dominant view has been that the increasing use of iron led to social changes in Britain. Maiden Castle: Hill fort - See 369 traveler reviews, 161 candid photos, and great deals for Dorchester, UK, at Tripadvisor. Abbotsbury, Dorset. 28 Nov, 2013. It is likely that several farming communities lived in the hill fort and wanted different entrances. Flint tools over 10,000 years old and two Bronze Age burial mounds are evidence that the site was in use long before the hill fort was built. The study of hill forts was popularised in the 19th century by archaeologist Augustus Pitt Rivers. An Iron Age hill fort has been bought by the National Trust for £450,000. Under the auspices of English Heritage, repair work and archaeological investigations were undertaken concurrently. The settlement was disbanded and it was used for a few years as a Roman military base. (Enter a dot for each missing letters, e.g. Dating from around 4000 BC, it was an oval area enclosed by two ditches, It is called a causewayed enclosure because the way the ditches were dug meant that there would originally have been gaps. The amount of ore required could not have been supplied by local sources, so most likely originated from areas of specialist iron production such as the Weald, south west England, and Wales. , Around 100 BC, Maiden Castle's organised street pattern was replaced by more random habitation. Dudsbury Camp hillfort is a ‘D’ shaped multivallate Iron Age enclosure of approx 8 acres (3.2 hectares), hard up against the river Stour on the South West side. Flint tools over 10,000 years old and two Bronze Age burial mounds are evidence that the site was in use long before the hill fort was built. Overlooking the River Stour, Hod Hill developed into a large Iron Age community consisting of over two hundred round houses. Although Dunium has long been thought to refer to Maiden Castle, Hod Hill and Hengistbury have been identified as two other possible sites for Dunium. 28/11/2013. If you haven't solved the crossword clue Hill fort in Dorset yet try to search our Crossword Dictionary by entering the letters you already know!  Little evidence has been discovered for houses in Maiden Castle during the site's reconstruction in the 5th century BC; this is probably because the site has not been fully excavated and a quarry used to provide material for the rampart may have obliterated the evidence. 2. Maiden Castle itself was built in about 600 BC; the early phase was a simple and unremarkable site, similar to many other hill forts in Britain and covering 6.4 hectares (16 acres). The Iron Age hill fort in East Dorset, England, known as Badbury Rings, was most probably constructed by the Durotriges tribe who inhabited the area before the Roman invasion. Maiden Castle in Dorset is one of the largest and most complex Iron Age hillforts in Europe - the size of 50 football pitches. 01 – Badbury Rings hillfort, Dorset. , The 4th-century temple gradually fell into disuse and Maiden Castle was used predominantly as pasture. OS map reference: SZ 077 979. However, a general dearth of evidence for destruction and an increase of artefacts associated with crafts and industry suggest that the reason for change was economic.  The Early Iron Age archaeology has been largely destroyed due to later activity on the site. 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