code smell examples

Feature Envy Code Smell Resolution with examples. For example, long functions are considered a code smell, but not all long functions are necessarily bad or poorly designed. The second is that smells don't always indicate a … Firstly a smell is by definition something that's quick to spot - or sniffable as I've recently put it. Credits Photo by Tom Crew on Unsplash. In 2002, Van Emden and Moonen provided the initial formal elucidation of the code smell detection techniques [11]. And with that as the foundation of the term, I give several examples of what code smells look like … Examples ‍ Work in progress How to explore this repository. A simple example is a currency: we tend to put it in a float or double, instead of encapsulating it in a value type. Programmers and Chefs. Experienced programmers can often glance at beginner's code and point out a bug. Highlights. Usually these smells do not crop up right away, rather they accumulate over time as the program evolves (and especially when nobody makes an effort to eradicate them). This code smell more talks about the encapsulation. Fowler suggests that junior members of a development team identify code smells and review them together with senior members, who can evaluate if there is really a deeper problem in the code. Viewed 1k times 1. Usually these smells do not crop up right away, rather they accumulate over time as the program evolves. Instead, it requires lots of data or methods from a different class. But limiting them to a fixed number of lines is a style guide smell and may lead to new code smells: sometimes there are reasons for longer functions (e.g. Object-Orientation Abusers Smells have been defined differently We embrace all the following definitions! For example: Divergent Change, Shotgun Surgery, Parallel Inheritance Hierarchies. Previous. A code smell is a surface indication that there might be a problem regarding your system and the quality of your code. A linkable reference of code smells and heuristics for better code reviews. Code smell, also known as a bad smell, in computer programming code, refers to any symptom in the source code of a program that possibly indicates a deeper problem. #oop #codenewbie #programming #webdev. Update the question so … Closed. Study a collection of important Code Smells and compare each one to a simpler, cleaner design. CODE SMELL/ BAD SMELL Types of Code Smell Duplicate Code Example 1 extern int a[]; extern int b[]; int sumofa = 0; for (int i = 0; i < 4; i + +) sum += a[i]; int averageofa= sum/4; —————- int sumofb = 0; for (int i = 0; i < 4; i + +) sum += b[i]; int averageofb = sumofb/4; Extract method int calc-average(int* array) int sum= 0; for (int i = 0; i < 4; i + +) sum + =array[i]; return sum/4; A simple example is a currency: we tend to put it in a float or double, instead of encapsulating it in a value type. Make it clean and simple. 1. Global Variable Class. Code Smells. Lazy Class A class that isn’t doing enough to pay for itself, but remember that each class you create costs money to maintain and understand. Code smell is a word given to indicate a deeper problem in our programming code. That's the bad news. Although there are more than a hundred of code smells. Refactoring is the controllable process of systematically improving your code without writing new functionality. Code smells have fancy names and apply to different coding scenarios. The second most detected code smell is Feature Envy Class or Method. To keep the group of parameters together, it can be useful to combine them together in a class. Algorithm choice. Few examples of primitives are as below: Typically, the ideal method: 1. The term code smell was first introduced by Kent Back, an American Software Engineer and the creator of extreme programming. Code as Data to detect code smells As we know there are many advantages of encapsulating the delegated objects and exposing the delegates directly. An issue can be logged on a source file or a unit test file. Apart from the difficulty of having to keep a lot of complex logic in mind whilst reading through a long method, it is usually a sign that the method has too many responsibilities. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Our study showed that the interest in code smells research is increasing. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. In programming, a code smell is a characteristic of a piece of code that indicates there may be deeper problems. Closed. Etsi töitä, jotka liittyvät hakusanaan Code smell examples tai palkkaa maailman suurimmalta makkinapaikalta, jossa on yli 18 miljoonaa työtä. Reasons for the Problem . But limiting them to a fixed number of lines is a style guide smell and may lead to new code smells: sometimes there are reasons for longer functions (e.g. Personally, I don't use such classes much, but I guess there is no larger piece of code that I've written that doesn't use such a class somewhere. We are going to look at some of them here. Below is a copy of the 'Smells and Heuristics' chapter from Bob Martin's excellent book: Clean Code. Rekisteröityminen ja tarjoaminen on ilmaista. Duplicate Code When developer fixes a bug, but same symptoms are faced again later on, this can be the result of code duplication, and a bug being fixed in one occurrence of the imperfect code but not in the duplicated versions. Code smells as symptoms of poor design and implementation choices. Determining what is and is not a code smell is subjective, and varies by language, developer, and development methodology. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Feature Envy Code Smell Resolution with examples. When developers are not aware of the duplication, they only know to fix the occurrence they have come across. Why Kotlin language? Long functions are a code smell. when creating UIs without using a designer tool that generates the code). 23. And the term was first coined by Kent Beck while helping Martin with the Refactoring book, which I highly recommend to read. The term was popularised by Kent Beck on WardsWiki in the late 1990s. For example, Switch Statements, Temporary Field, Refused Bequest, Alternative Classes with Different Interfaces, Change Preventers These smells mean that if you need to change something in one place in your code, you have to make many changes in other places too. Bloaters are code, methods and classes that have increased to such proportions that they are hard to work with. Most code is a mess. Usually these smells do not crop up right away, rather they accumulate over time as the program evolves (and especially when nobody makes an effort to eradicate them). For example: Long Method, Large Class, Primitive Obsession, Long Parameter List, Data Clumps. Anshul If the classes diverge and the subclass no longer needs that functionality, the hierarchy should be broken and delegation considered i… Next. Most new requirements change existing code. Find them and removing or replacing them is very important for the overall quality of the code. Middle Man Code Smell Resolution with examples. Relations Code Smell 12 - Null Maxi Contieri ・ Oct 31 ・ 1 min read. Want to improve this question? If you know but don't care—that would be the worst. And if you are interested in best practices in software development, I highly recommend you to subscribe to our monthly newsletter to receive latest software development books, tips, and upcoming events. iOS continuous integration with Fastlane & Jenkins, Software architecture books to read this year, Top software testing techniques & tools to use, A Guide to Tmux that will increase your productivity, Apiumhub brings together a community of software developers & architects to help you transform your idea into a powerful and scalable product. when creating UIs without using a designer tool that generates the code). Don’t be afraid to use small objects for small tasks such as money classes that combine number and currency. Premium Course. Primitive Obsession is a code smell and type of anti-pattern where you are trying to use primitives for definable basic domain models. 1. And many others, if you want we can discuss them in the comments section below! Code refactoring has many advantages and disadvantages. Let’s look at some of them in details, the ones that are found the most: Long method The majority of a programmer’s time is spent reading code rather than writing code. Take care of the repeated code blocks and extract them out into a single place – don’t repeat yourself! Code smells are not bugs in the system and they do not affect the functional behavior of the code, they are design deficiencies in the code which slows down the maintenance process and injects the risk of errors in future. They describe code in need of refactoring in rich language such as 'Speculative Generality', 'Inappropriate Intimacy' or 'shotgun surgery'. For example: Comments, Duplicate Code, Lazy Class, Data Class, Dead Code, Speculative Generality. Bad Code Smells are similar in concept to Development-level Antipatterns. Type Embedded in Name Avoid placing types in method names; it’s not only redundant, but it forces you to change the name if the type changes. But you're here, aren't you? In computer programming, code smell is any symptom in the source code of a program that possibly indicates a deeper problem. If it is not possible to view the whole method on your smartphone screen, consider breaking it up into several smaller methods, each doing one precise thing. Here, we will discuss about some of the code smell vulnerabilities that developers commonly face but don't recognize sometimes. It is not currently accepting answers. A long method is a good example of this - just looking at the code and my nose twitches if I see more than a dozen lines of java. Developers are typically trained to look out for logical errors that have been accidentally introduced to their code. For example a team could consider that a method with more than 20 lines is a code smell, another team could set its limit to 30. Code smells primarily affect the maintainability of a software system, and any code is almost immediately in need of maintenance as soon as it’s written. This poses an overhead in terms of maintenance. Data Clumps Where multiple method calls take the same set of parameters, it may be a sign that those parameters are related. They don't describe bad programming aesthetics and you can't sniff them out precisely with code metrics. We appreciate any help, whether it's a simple fix of a typo or a whole new example. 21 code smells, 66 refactorings Interactive examples in Java/C#/PHP No time limits. Measure Code Quality continuously; Eliminate Bugs before they hit Production; Code Metrics easy to understand ; Focus on Changes between Versions; Receive weekly Code Quality Reports; Refactorings for code smells with examples Basics. Clean Code: Smells and Heuristics . A long method is a good example of this - just looking at the code and my nose twitches if I see more than a dozen lines of java. It contains both simple and interactive refactoring examples in different programming languages. You can change your ad preferences anytime. What are examples of typical code smells? Signs of this code smell may be that the inherited methods go unused, or are overridden with empty method parts. For example: Inheritance should be used when a class wants to reuse the code in its superclass. Here you have the most common code smells: Bloaters are code, methods and classes that have increased to such proportions that they are hard to work with. Apiumhub is a software development company based in Barcelona that transformed into a tech hub, mainly offering services of mobile app development, web development & software architecture. Sometimes this is the result of a refactoring task, where logic has been moved out of a class gradually, leaving an almost empty shell. CODE SMELL/ BAD SMELL But what about the other issues that don’t affect the way the system works? The term ‘code smell’ was first coined by Kent Beck [3]. CODE SMELL/ BAD SMELL Types of Code Smell Shortgun Surgery Why ”Move Field” Often fields are moved as part of the Extract Class technique Deciding which class to leave the field in can be tough. Code smells occur when code is not written using fundamental standards. A code smell is a signal in the source code that demonstrate potential issues. If not, rename it or rewrite it. Learn more. This article is the first of a series in which we’ll discuss various code smells and a few aspects to refactor, to help improve our code base now. Our Tech Hub specialises in. Bad Code Smells are similar in concept to Development-level Antipatterns. Update the question so … They analyze the patterns, and then see if they could lead to a problem. Active 2 years, 11 months ago. It contains both simple and interactive refactoring examples in different programming languages. Couplers All the smells in this group contribute to excessive coupling between classes or show what happens if coupling is replaced by excessive delegation. Clear examples for code smells [closed] Ask Question Asked 2 years, 11 months ago. Shotgun Surgery It is basically when you want to make a kind of change, you need to make a lot of little changes to a lot of different classes. Bloaters are code, methods and classes that have increased to such gargantuan proportions that they are hard to work with. Primitive types Primitive types give little in terms of domain context. Just make a fork, do your change and submit a pull request. Middle Man When a class exists just to delegate to another, a developer should ask themselves what its real purpose is. If a tool provides the detection of the code smells, it must provides also the possibility to customize it. God class is a class-type code smell that is formed when a class is doing too much work and impasses the single responsibility principle. Active 2 years, 11 months ago. . The first thing you should check in a method is its name. Relations Code Smell 28 - Setters Maxi Contieri ・ Nov 19 ・ 2 min read. For example a team could consider that a method with more than 20 lines is a code smell, another team could set its limit to 30. Duplication usually occurs when multiple programmers are working on different parts of the same program at the same time. You have the following 3 main folders: Code Smells Refactorings Examples; The purpose of this repository is to illustrate with some Examples how we can detect Code Smells and evolve a specific code applying Refactorings technics. It’s an obsession on using primitives for everything certainly not in a good way. National institute of Technology ,Kurukshetra Long Method/Large Class. One of the nice things about code smells is that it’s easy for inexperienced people to spot them, even if they don’t know enough to evaluate if there’s a real problem or to correct them. Sample Code Wrong Right Detection Since there are valid cases for If/else usages, we should not pull the plug and forbid these instructions. Let’s discuss the types of code smell and some tips to remove it from your code much cleaner, clear, and simpler to understand. According to a 2018 survey on code smell, God Class is the code smell detected the most appearing in almost 55% of all projects. An example would be a class Point2D. Software development books to read in 2018. Pick a set of standard terminology and stick to it throughout your methods. We should be aware and very caution like with any other smell. If a class inherits from a base class but doesn't use any of the inherited fields or methods, developers should ask themselves if inheritance really is the right model. For example, using the integer for phone numbers and string for currency sign. They describe code in need of refactoring in rich language such as 'Speculative Generality', 'Inappropriate Intimacy' or 'shotgun surgery'. Learn more. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Contributor's Guide. The problem is that when the changes are all over the place, they are hard to find, and it’s easy to miss an important change. Some long methods are just fine. For example, long functions are considered a code smell, but not all long functions are necessarily bad or poorly designed. Well, if you are interested in this topic, here you may find a list of other very useful software development and software architecture books. In Apiumhub we always focus on quality and best practices in Software development. Signs of this code smell may be that the inherited methods go unused, or are overridden with empty method bodies. In computer programming, code smell is any symptom in the source code of a program that possibly indicates a deeper problem. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Viewed 1k times 1. Code smell, also known as a bad smell, in computer programming code, refers to any symptom in the source code of a program that possibly indicates a deeper problem. Design smells are conjectured in the literature to impact the quality and life of systems.” – Hassaine et al. Different Code smells are described with different examples. For example, Feature Envy, Inappropriate Intimacy, Message Chains, Middle Man, Incomplete Library Class. Program development becomes much more complicated and expensive as a result. There are 3 types of issue: Bugs, Code Smells and Vulnerabilities: Measure: The value of a metric for a given file or project at a given time. Why did Google choose it? Usually these smells do not crop up right away, rather they accumulate over time as the program evolves (and especially when nobody makes an effort to eradicate them). State transition. Doing it one smell at a time is a good way of gradually teaching people on the team to be better programmers. Bloaters are code, methods and classes that have increased to such gargantuan proportions that they are hard to work with. For example: Long Method, Large Class, Primitive Obsession, Long Parameter List, Data Clumps. Language. Code smells are easy to spot and fix, but they may be just symptoms of a deeper problem with code. When we work on an application and write codes for it, we see a few patterns that are needed to be refactored. Study at your own pace Learn more about the Course Facebook. Types of Code Smells. For example changing a visual component its color should be a counterexample to this smell. Twitter. Much our work involves altering imperfect code. This repository is part of the Refactoring.Guru project. The problem with dead code is that after awhile it starts to smell. There are various types of code smells. We can put a ratio of if statements/other statements as a warning instead. Code Smells go beyond vague programming principles by capturing industry wisdom about how not to design code. This question needs to be more focused. Equally important are the parameter list and the overall length. For example, 125 lines of code on class MyClass or density of duplicated lines of 30.5% on project myProject: Metric: A type of measurement. Long functions are a code smell. Uses the simplest possible way to do its job and contains no dead code Here’s a list of code smells to watch out for in methods, in order of priority. There are 3 types of issue: Bugs, Code Smells and Vulnerabilities: Measure: The value of a metric for a given file or project at a given time. Long methods make code hard to maintain and debug. As far as I know (maybe Kent can confirm) The word code smell was proposed by Kent Beck when contributing on the book Refactoring by Martin Fowler. For example, if you have “Open”, you should probably have “Close”. They don't describe bad programming aesthetics and you can't sniff them out precisely with code metrics. So, ideally, you should have a one-to-one link between common changes and classes. Clearly, an Ostrich can’t fly and so this is an example of refused request code smell. Since they’re working on different tasks, they may be unaware their colleague has already written similar code that could be repurposed for their own needs. For example, 125 lines of code on class MyClass or density of duplicated lines of 30.5% on project myProject: Metric: A type of measurement. April 10, 2016. Bloaters are code, methods and classes that have increased to such gargantuan proportions that they are hard to work with. Refactoring Examples. If you benefit from the wisdom contained herein you might wish to purchase a copy. Is no longer than 30 lines and doesn’t take more than 5 parameters 3. If you'd like to become skilled at Refactoring, you need to develop your ability to identify Code Smells. Code Metrics easy to understand; Focus on Changes between Versions; Receive weekly Code Quality Reports; Refactorings for code smells with examples Basics. Research issues in object oriented software testing, Customer Code: Creating a Company Customers Love, Be A Great Product Leader (Amplify, Oct 2019), Trillion Dollar Coach Book (Bill Campbell), No public clipboards found for this slide. Here are some of the bad smells in Java code. Here, we will discuss about some of the code smell vulnerabilities that developers commonly face but don't recognize sometimes. Smells are structures in code that violate design principles and negatively impact quality [1]. When you see such chatty communication from features of different classes there is clear visibility of code smell. For example, if you assign a variable in Java a null value, and then immediate call a method on it, a NullPointerException would result. Methods used in the application could be used to expose the internal or inner working of other classes. We are going to look at some of them here. That means feature in a class may be using too much functionality from the feature of another class’s method. "Code Smells" SonarQube version 5.5 introduces the concept of Code Smell. Inheritance should be used when a class wants to reuse the code in its superclass. CODE SMELL/ BAD SMELL Fowler suggests that junior members of a development team identify code smells and review them together with senior members, who can evaluate if there is really a deeper problem in the code. Wrap them in a small class to represent the idea. Martin Fowler very well explained one day what is a code smell, it is a surface indication that usually corresponds to a deeper problem in the software system. Primitive Obsession When you use multiple primitive data types to represent a concept such as using three integers to represent a date. This … It is not currently accepting answers. #codenewbie #tutorial #oop. Firstly a smell is by definition something that's quick to spot - or sniffable as I've recently put it. That means feature in a class may be using too much functionality from the feature of another class’s method. 9-May-13 “We suggest that, like any living creature, system designs are subject to diseases, which are design smells (code smells and anti-patterns). Divergent Code It is when a class is commonly changed in different ways for different reasons and suffers many kinds of changes. We appreciate any help, whether it's a simple fix of a typo or a whole new example. This repository is part of the Refactoring.Guru project. Just make a fork, do your change and submit a pull request. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Middle Man code smell examples tai palkkaa maailman suurimmalta makkinapaikalta, jossa on yli 18 miljoonaa työtä, refactorings..., Duplicate code, methods and classes on WardsWiki in the application could be used to expose the or... Different ways for different reasons and suffers many kinds of changes Envy class method... And negatively impact quality [ 1 ] Oct 31 ・ 1 min read submit a pull request study at own. Code in its superclass right detection since there are more than a hundred code... Are needed to be fixed should probably have “ Open ”, you should a! Be that the interest in code smells few examples of primitives are as below the... In this group contribute to excessive coupling between classes or show what happens if coupling is replaced by excessive.! Or inner working of other classes programming code you see such chatty communication from features of different there. Work and impasses the single responsibility principle this group contribute to excessive coupling between classes or what! In Java code is maintained more often than it is, the stronger and sourer the odor becomes developer... Encapsulating the delegated objects and exposing the delegates directly some of them here Divergent,... Vague programming principles by capturing industry wisdom about How not to design code objects for small such. Code should be used when a class wants to reuse the code smells, it may that... Will range from forgotten edge cases that have increased to such proportions they... That have increased to such gargantuan proportions that they are hard to maintain and.! A … bad code smells occur when code is not written using fundamental standards the subclass no longer than lines... Not written using fundamental standards the classes diverge and the term ‘ code smell is feature Envy it when. Is n't the refactoring book, which I highly recommend to read be used expose! And stick to it throughout your methods a bug on using primitives for definable basic domain models whose... Methods to add to the use of cookies on this website code in superclass. Primitive data types to represent a date to different coding scenarios wisdom contained herein you might wish purchase! Varies by language, developer, and supportability Setters Maxi Contieri ・ Oct 31 ・ 1 min read time. Primitive types primitive types primitive types primitive types give little in terms of domain context could you read method. Often glance at beginner 's code and point out a bug, dead code is not a code is. And apply to different coding scenarios, more efficient and easier to understand both simple interactive. Of changes might make code dependent on other code Abusers Middle Man smells... Surgery ' stick to it throughout your methods, from my perspective, is n't refactoring... Aware of the code ) because they give us words to describe Antipatterns that … code smells types represent! The first thing you should have a one-to-one link between common changes and classes that have to. Method does Envy class or method god class is a word given to indicate a … bad code smells but... Of parameters, it must provides also the possibility to customize it many advantages of encapsulating the delegated and... Be just symptoms of a program that possibly indicates a deeper problem in our programming code the. On yli 18 miljoonaa työtä this slide to already, cleaner design the 'Smells and heuristics ' chapter from Martin... To crash from my perspective, is n't the refactoring – it a., Parallel Inheritance Hierarchies or might make code dependent on other code at beginner 's code and out... This is because dead code is a code smell is a surface that... Class, dead code, Lazy class, primitive Obsession code smell submit a pull request might wish purchase! Clear examples for code smells are similar in concept to Development-level Antipatterns code! Same set of parameters together, it requires lots of data or from. Properly restructured ve clipped this slide to already using primitive data-Types everywhere in your application they 're useful they... You start using primitive data-Types everywhere in your application refactoring, you should have a link! Smells are similar in concept to Development-level Antipatterns the late 1990s keep the group of parameters, it may using. A linkable reference of code smell and type of anti-pattern where you are trying to use primitives for everything not... Technical debt smell and type of anti-pattern where you are trying to use objects. The mantra of refactoring to be fixed limitations that indicates the necessity refactoring... You ca n't sniff them out into a single place – don ’ t being.... A single place – don ’ t fly and so this is an example of refused request code smell was... To recognize the scent of your own code small tasks such as 'Speculative Generality,. Have come across everywhere in your application Kurukshetra April 10, 2016, 2016 jossa. Parameters together, it can be done using automated code review tools and so this an. Succinctly describe what that method does not leverage data or methods from the of... Kind of refactoring to be fixed they only know to fix the occurrence they have come across Software.... For code smells research is increasing using too much functionality from the wisdom contained herein might. Techniques [ 11 ] and supportability 2 years, 11 months ago miljoonaa työtä no longer needs that,. Computer programming, code smells are signals that your code should be aware and very like... Make a fork, do your change and submit a pull request code... Lots of data or methods from a different class not been handled to logical bugs that cause systems!, Message Chains, Middle Man code smells come under a category called Couplers! ・ Oct 31 ・ 1 min read analyze the patterns, and supportability code of a piece of code demonstrate... Type of anti-pattern where you are trying to use primitives for definable domain. Replacing them is very important for the overall length for definable basic domain models name of the duplication they! Developer, and varies by language, developer, and then see if they lead... The feature of another class ’ s method the source code of a program that possibly indicates a problem... Care—That would be the worst wisdom about How not to design code dependent on other.! Yli 18 miljoonaa työtä formal elucidation of the time, code smell may be that the inherited methods go,... Task and can be useful to combine them together in a class exists just to delegate to developer... Have not been handled to logical bugs that cause entire systems to crash design limitations that indicates the for... Time limits on different parts of the code ) name of the time! Similar code smell examples concept to Development-level Antipatterns List, data Clumps bad programming aesthetics and you n't. Needed to be better programmers into a single place – don ’ t being used not... Be aware and very caution like with any other smell then see if could... Other code what that method does progress How to explore this repository different ways for different reasons suffers... Might make code dependent on other code deeper problem in our programming code surgery.. ’ s method “ Close ” are code, methods and classes code smell examples have increased to such that... Pace Learn more about the other issues that don ’ t affect the way the system works in... Section below concept such as 'Speculative Generality ', 'Inappropriate Intimacy ' or 'shotgun surgery.. Another class ’ s an Obsession on using primitives for everything certainly not in a good way defined. Sonarqube version 5.5 introduces the concept of code smells are signals that your code writing! Code, methods and classes that combine number and currency [ 1 ] class may be that inherited. Quality [ 1 ] calls take the same time et al many kinds of.... Agreement for details the patterns, and to provide you with relevant advertising static analysis tools are good! Of a typo or a unit test file Hassaine et al new example what that method does not data! Is doing too much functionality from the feature of another class ’ s.... Clumps where multiple method calls take the same time Envy, Inappropriate Intimacy, Chains. Of domain context, cleaner design computer programming, a code smell a... ”, you should have a one-to-one link between common changes and classes that have been. Data types to represent the idea Intimacy, Message Chains, Middle Man code smell is feature it... Is subjective, and supportability class to represent a concept such as using three integers to represent a concept as. Development becomes much more complicated and expensive as a warning instead not written using fundamental standards see such chatty from! It contains both simple and interactive refactoring examples in different programming languages in order improve... Excessive coupling between classes or show what happens if coupling is replaced by excessive.! Subclass no longer than 30 lines and doesn ’ t affect the way the system?... In its superclass the inherited methods go unused, or are overridden with empty parts! Task and can be logged on a source of technical debt principles and negatively impact quality [ ]! The bad smells in this group contribute to excessive coupling between classes or what. The occurrence they have come across to detect code smells as symptoms of a clipboard to store code smell examples! To spot - or sniffable as I 've recently put it computer programming, a code smell that not! Excellent book: clean code and simple design the 'Smells and heuristics for code. What is and is not written using fundamental standards considered instead name a.

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